Explorations in Black Leadership

Co-Directed by Phyllis Leffler & Julian Bond

Niagara Movement

Started by W. E. B. Du Bois in 1905, the Niagara Movement challenged the more accomodationist views of Booker T. Washington, seen by many as too conciliatory. The group wrote a manifesto that demanded the right to vote, elimination of segregation on public transit, and the guarantee of basic rights to African Americans. Several members of the movement, importantly including Du Bois, founded the NAACP in 1909, and disbanded the Niagara group in 1910. See also NAACP.